Computer Forensics Specialist Is Able to Disprove a Claim Involving Improper Use of Data
As more and more business is conducted electronically, the legal community has become aware of the need to properly archive data that might be required as evidence in litigation. Computer forensics investigation certainly plays a key role in the electronic discovery process.
As Boston attorney Michael J. McHugh recently learned, however, computer forensics specialists like Ispirian's Tom Smith, a forensic scientist and a member of the American College of Forensic Examiners Institute of Forensic Science, can also aid companies and their legal counsel in addressing claims regarding the improper use or destruction of data.
“We often use IT people for litigation support. Usually it boils down to how you produce electronic files under the new federal rules for electronic discovery,” McHugh said. “I had the privilege of working with Tom recently and seeing how he can actually re-create what had occurred inside a computer with a particular set of data over a period of time. This was the first time that the actual inner workings of the computer were relevant to an issue that I had in a case.
“I had a general idea of what takes place inside a computer but I had never had the need to retain someone like Tom who could prepare a report that detailed it step by step.”
In electronic discovery, computer forensics ensures that digital evidence isn’t corrupted or contaminated from a legal standpoint. However, the same techniques can be used to prove — or, in this case, disprove — that computer devices have been used for improper or illegal activities.
A computer forensics investigation begins with proper “chain of custody” of digital media. The investigator must ensure that no damage is done or change is made to the original media when data is extracted and copied. A computer forensics specialist then makes a bit-stream image of the original media. The hard drive is copied bit-by-bit – adding nothing and omitting nothing – a proves this by the verification of message digests (digital fingerprints) of the original media and the forensic copy.
Once the forensics image is obtained, Smith can analyze it using a variety of tools and techniques to ascertain what data has been modified, copied or deleted. He is also able to identify key evidentiary data that may be hidden or encrypted and perform extraction, analysis and reporting of evidence.
“In this case, Tom’s ultimate challenge was to determine whether or not data was improperly used,” said McHugh. “There was also the issue of spoliation of the data because a long period of time had elapsed before the forensic image was obtained. And the extent to which you can establish that data has been modified or deleted in the interim has legal relevance. The courts will treat very harshly a party who engages in that type of spoliation.”
Smith was able not only to refute that plaintiff’s claim and to show that spoliation of the data did occur but to prove that the event did not happen.
McHugh was impressed with Smith’s technical skills as well as his ability to describe his analysis in layman’s terms. Smith provided a detailed yet comprehensive report that could have been used as evidence had the case gone to trial.
“Tom is very good at what he does,” McHugh said. “He did not need to get into a lot of jargon. The report broke down the analysis and the tools used into understandable pieces. There was a logical progression of how the investigation took place and what a computer does when it processes and stores information. I understood his report and I’m not that computer literate. So I know it had to be generally understandable to lay people.”
With a combination of technical acumen and law enforcement techniques, computer forensics specialists investigate crimes ranging from homicide to identity theft. In the business world, computer forensics is used to aid in electronic discovery, corporate governance and regulatory compliance, and in cases of employee misconduct or data theft. Given the vital role computers play in business, computer forensics specialists like Tom Smith are key assets to the business and legal communities.
Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer.For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.