Forensic, General & Medical
Expert Witnesses

Red Flags When Evaluating Medical Records

By J. Joseph & Associates, Forensic Handwriting Investigations
Board Certified Forensic Handwriting Examiner
When you have what you regard as a suspicious record or handwritten entries, the following clues should alert you to the need for a document examiner and/or handwriting expert.

• Crowding or squeezing in of words.
• Written words around existing entries.
• Change in slant, pressure, and uniformity of handwriting.
• Presence of erasure, eradication, obliteration or other correction(s).
• Use of two or more inks to write one entry which normally would be written with one pen/ink.
• Irregular alignment of pre-printed lines at intersecting folds.
• Irregular alignment of holes (punched/stapled).
• Irregular alignment of paper tears.
• Shadow writing (impressions or lack of impressions/ink on next page.
• Alignment of the margins vary improperly.
• Use of medical forms not manufactured or printed until after the date of entries.
• Incorrect chronological order of the date(s).
• Illogical order of the content of the writing.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Jacqueline A. Joseph, Board Certified Forensic Document Examiner and Handwriting Investigator
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Jacqueline A. Joseph, B.A., CDE, D-BFDE* Board Certified Forensic Document Examiner and Handwriting Investigator

*D-BFDE (Diplomate with the Board of Forensic Document Examiners). Fewer than 1% of forensic document examiners worldwide have achieved this noted credential.

Since 1992 she is has provided services in handwriting identification and authentication in the Pacific Northwest and worldwide. As a testifying expert, she has given testimony in civil and criminal matters. Her published papers include research in ambidexterity, opposite-hand writing, disguise and more. In collaboration with Marcel B. Matley, she produced an educational DVD "The Two Pillars of Individuality and Identifiability in Handwriting." This work was approved for 3 semester-credit hours at East Tennessee State University Forensic Science Department.

Copyright J. Joseph & Associates, Forensic Handwriting Investigations

Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer.For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

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