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Biomechanical Expert Witness

Jonathan S. Lee-Confer, Ph.D.

Jonathan S. Lee-Confer, Ph.D.

3661 N Campbell Avenue
Suite 242

Tucson, Arizona 85719

Phone(916) 878-6543


► Contact Jonathan S. Lee-Confer, Ph.D.

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Verum Biomechanics has expert witnesses that specialize in slip/trip and fall analyses, premises liability, motor vehicular and pedestrian reconstruction, injury biomechanics, code compliance, and walkway safety analyses. Our experts have a PhD from top academic institutions, published peer-review research in top biomechanical journals, and co-authored ASTM International standards.


Verum Biomechanics provides biomechanical expert witness consulting services using biomechanics to investigate slips, trips and fall analyses, human factors, premises liability, walkway safety, motor vehicular accidents, injury mechanics, motor and pedestrian reconstruction, code compliance (ASTM, OSHA, ADA as it pertains to walkway safety), and others.

Areas of Expertise

Additional Expertise:

Tribometer Slip Resistance Testing, Motor Vehicular and Pedestrian Reconstruction.


Dr. Jonathan S. Lee-Confer has a PhD from the University of Southern California from a top 5 ranked program. Dr. Lee-Confer is currently a faculty member, the secretary general and co-chairman of the education committee for the Arizona Falls Prevention Coalition, and director of biomechanics for a forensic biomechanical consulting firm. Dr. Lee-Confer has published research in top journals such as "Journal of Biomechanics", "Applied Ergonomics", and "Journal of Testing and Evaluation". Furthermore, Dr. Lee-Confer is co-developing the biomechanical training for Arizona Senate Bill 1373 and is a co-author on the research behind the ASTM International F2508 standard.

Areas Served

All States

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Professional Experience

Dr. Lee-Confer has been in the field of biomechanics for over a decade. Currently Dr. Lee-Confer is the Director of Biomechanics for Verum Biomechanics, a teaching faculty member at a college, and holds leadership positions at the Arizona Falls Prevention Coalition. Dr. Lee-Confer has taught biomechanics at the undergraduate and doctoral levels at California State University, Sacramento and the University of Southern California, respectively. Dr. Lee-Confer has worked on biomechanical projects for other forensic firms and conducted consulting work previously as well.


American Society of Testing and Materials

ASTM Subcommittee member F13 Pedestrian/Walkway Safety & Footwear

Arizona Falls Prevention Coalition

American Society of Biomechanics


Ph.D. in Biomechanics from a top ranked program
Co-author on research behind the ASTM F2508-16e
Co-author on the biomechanical training for Arizona Senate Bill 1373
Dozens of biomechanical peer-reviewed research papers
Published in top biomechanical and ergonomic scientific journals

Awards & Honors

Received the Research & Science Award from the Arizona Falls Prevention Coalition (2022)
Received the Peak Performer Award from the Arizona College of Nursing (2021)

Seminars & Training

Lee-Confer, J. What does the science say about slips? Tucson Defense Bar, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Lee-Confer, J. The Biomechanics of Gait, Slips and Falls. Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States of America

Lee-Confer, J. The Utility of the Arms for Balance During a Slip Perturbation. Arizona Falls Prevention Coalition, Arizona, United States of America

Lee-Confer, J. The Neural Control of the Arms During a Slip Perturbation. Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan


Lee-Confer, J.S., Finley, J.M., Kulig, K., & Powers, C.M. (2023) Reactive Responses of the Arms Increase the Margins of Stability and Decrease Center of Mass Dynamics During a Slip Perturbation. Journal of Biomechanics. (In-Review, 10/2022)

Lee-Confer, J.S., Lo, M.K., & Troy, K.L. (2023) Young adults accelerate their arms significantly faster than older adults in response to a slip perturbation. American Society of Biomechanics, Knoxville, TN, United States of America. (Submitted 03/2023)

Lim, S., Luo, Y., Lee-Confer, J., & D'Souza, C. (2023). Obstacle Clearance Performance in Individuals with High Body Mass Index. Applied Ergonomics, 106, 103879

Lee-Confer, J. S., Kulig, K., & Powers, C. M. (2022). Constraining the Arms During a Slip Perturbation Results in a Higher Fall Frequency in Young Adults. Human Movement Science, 86, 103016

Lee-Confer, J. S., Bradley, N. S., & Powers, C. M. (2022). Quantification of Reactive Arm Responses to a Slip Perturbation. Journal of Biomechanics, 110967.

Lee-Confer, J., Kulig, K., Lo, M., & Powers, C. (2022) Arm Movements Reduce Center of Mass Excursion During a Slip Perturbation. North American Congress on Biomechanics, Ottawa, Canada.

Lee-Confer, J., Lee, R., Powers, C. (2022) Frontal Plane Trunk Motion is Induced During a Slip Incident. World Congress of Biomechanics, Taipei, Taiwan.

Lee-Confer, J., Lee, R., Powers, C. (2022) Arm Motion Decreases Whole-Body Angular Momentum in the Frontal Plane During a Slip Perturbation. World Congress of Biomechanics, Taipei, Taiwan.

Blanchette, M. G., Lee-Confer, J., Brault, J. R., Rutledge, B., Elkin, B. S., & Siegmund, G. P. (2022). Human Slip Assessment of Candidate Reference Surfaces for Walkway Tribometer Validation: An Update to Standard ASTM F2508. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 50(2).
DOI: 10.1520/JTE20210240

Lee, J., Asplund, C., Vera, L., Ruegg, S., & Powers, C. (2019) Quantification of Arm Kinematics in Response to a Slip-Induced Perturbation. International Society of Biomechanics, American Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Canada.

Lee, J., Scher, I., Stepan, L., & Powers, C. (2019) The Effect of Ski Boots on Utilized Coefficient of Friction. International Congress on Snow Sports Trauma and Safety, Squaw Valley, CA, United States of America.

Lee, J., Asplund, C., Ruegg, S., Vera, L., & Powers, C. (2019) Are corrective muscle responses during a slip perturbation coordinated by the vestibular system? Neural Control of Movement Society, Toyama, Japan.

Lee, J., Dang, K., Asplund, C., & Powers, C. (2018) Arm Movements Increase Margins of Stability During a Slip Perturbation. USC Jacqueline Perry Research Day. Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Lee, J., Dang, K., Cohen, A., & Powers, C. (2017) A comparison of two methods to assess EMG latencies following a slip perturbation. European Society of Biomechanics, Seville, Spain.

Lee, J., Dang, K., & Powers, C. (2017) Heel acceleration differentiates fallers from non-fallers following a slip perturbation. European Society of Biomechanics, Seville, Spain.

Lee, J., Imamura, R., Merrier, N., & Shimada, S. (2015) Control of balance during quiet standing in an individual with FXTAS. Biomedical Engineering Society Conference. Tampa, FL, United States of America.

Lee, J., Imamura, R., Merrier, N., & Shimada, S. (2014) Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome. Biomedical Engineering Society Conference. San Antonio, TX, United States of America.


Ph.D., Biokinesiology (Emphasis in Biomechanics), University of Southern California

M.S., Kinesiology, California State University, Sacramento

B.S., Kinesiology, California State University, Sacramento

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